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"Law of the Sea... Law of the Peoples"

"In my country, 45% of states' land territory has no access to the sea, as shown in the map, in yellow.


Jurists may say that it is quite different from a land-locked state legal status. Yes, it is, however the challenges are the same.


Goods that arrive at the port of Santos are often carried 1,600 km by road to Cuiabá city, as shown in the map, in magenta.


In regard to our neighboring states, an agreement was established in 1957, 60 years ago, therefore, prior to the first Conference on The Law of the Sea in 1958, granting to Paraguay full access to the sea through Brazilian territory to the port of Paranaguá, as shown in map, in red.


Brazil Map land-locked regions

This agreement also establishes a duty free warehouse at the port of Paranaguá for goods exported and imported by Paraguay.

Brazil also needs access to the sea for its land-locked regions.


Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and China are negotiating an agreement to build an interoceanic railroad connecting the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, as shown in map, in blue.

Concerning the sharing of benefits as a result of implementation of article 82 of UNCLOS, Brazil is a sponsor-state to the ISA to an agreement related to the Area in the Rio Grande rise.

Article 82 treats the perspective of natural right ("ius naturale") or inherent rights of land-locked states in accessing and effectively exercising the right to receive an equitable share of benefits derived from activities in the Area to fulfill their interests and needs.

There is no doubt that the juridical culture and practice in Brazil (and I am a part of them), in the field of the Law of the Sea and in foreign relations, are based on respect for the rights of all states, which includes land-locked states."

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